2Ds, 3Ds or 4Ds

Decarbonization + Decentralization

Recently, I read some articles mentioned about 3Ds or 4Ds. From my prospective, use 3Ds (Decarbonization, Decentralization, and Digitalization) or 4D (+Decreasing Use) just create another term but I feel meaningless. Because “Decreasing Use” was included in Decarbonization, and “Digitalization” was included in decentralization. So, the real topic is Decarbonization + Decentralization. Or exactly Climate-Tech + Web3.

Current landscape

1. Decarbonization and Renewable Energy Growth: The transition towards a net-zero future is gaining momentum, evidenced by significant advancements in electric vehicle sales and renewable energy. By 2040, solar and wind are expected to constitute the largest share of the world’s energy mix. This shift necessitates substantial investments, estimated to increase from $1.5 trillion in 2021 to between $2 and $3.2 trillion in 2040.

2. Decentralization and Distributed Generation: With the rise of distributed energy resources, the energy sector is moving towards a more decentralized system. The integration of blockchain and Web3 technologies facilitates this transition by enabling peer-to-peer energy trading and enhancing data verifiability and trust within the sector. These technologies also support the decentralization of energy systems through increased transactional capabilities and smart contracts for automated transactions.

3. Decreasing Energy Use and Efficiency: The trend towards decreasing energy use focuses on enhancing energy efficiency and promoting conservation. This includes not only technological advancements but also behavioral changes to reduce energy consumption. The transition to more energy-efficient systems and practices is a key component of the broader energy transition narrative.

4. Digitalization as an Accelerator: The energy sector is at the forefront of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, with AI, blockchain, IoT, and edge computing driving its transformation. Digital technologies play a crucial role in facilitating the transition to net-zero emissions, optimizing efficiency, reducing energy and waste, and monitoring greenhouse gas sinks. However, there is a need for more aggressive adoption of these technologies to achieve decarbonization targets across industries.

Challenges and Future Outlook

1. Uncertainties and Challenges: The path ahead for the energy transition is filled with uncertainties, including technological advancements, geopolitical risks, and consumer behavior. These uncertainties make it challenging for decision-makers to craft resilient investment strategies that address multiple objectives simultaneously.

2. Investment Shifts and Bottlenecks: There will be a gradual shift in investment focus from fossil fuels to green technologies and electric transmission. Despite this shift, a significant portion of energy investments in 2040 will still be allocated to fossil fuels and conventional power generation. Overcoming bottlenecks such as land availability, energy infrastructure, and material availability is crucial for a successful transition.

3. Rapid Technological Growth and Unpredictable Future: Despite the uncertainties, the growth of low-carbon technologies continues to accelerate. The future of energy is expected to be “decarbonized, decentralized, and digital.” However, there is an urgent need for industries to adopt digital technologies more rapidly to meet decarbonization goals. Governments and businesses face the challenge of planning for an unclear future energy mix, where waiting could pose significant risks.


1.Short-Term Innovations and Opportunities:

Renewable Energy Sources: Immediate opportunities lie in the deployment of solar, photovoltaic, on-land, and offshore wind technologies.Smart Transport and Services Integration: Short-term innovations include integrating smart transport and services into electricity systems, turning them from liabilities into dynamic assets that boost these systems.Decentralized Generation: Early developments in decentralized energy sources, particularly in more competitive investment costs for wind, solar, and storage technologies, are creating opportunities for distributed generation.

2. Medium-Term Innovations and Opportunities:

Electric Transport Networks: The focus will be on digitizing and integrating large-scale generation like wind and photovoltaic, along with integrating distributed resources such as electric vehicles and charging stations.Consumer Engagement in Energy Systems: Consumers becoming dynamic actors in the energy market, potentially producing and consuming their energy, will drive new business models and technologies in this space.

3. Long-Term Innovations and Opportunities:

Advanced Decentralization Models: Long-term, there will be a need for more sophisticated control mechanisms in electricity transmission and distribution, as decentralized sources become more prevalent.Infrastructure Adaptation: Significant investments will be required in the long run to adapt existing infrastructure to new decentralized models, including self-consumption, smart meters, and integration of renewable energy sources.


The energy transition, is progressing rapidly but faces significant challenges and uncertainties. Decarbonization, decentralization, decreasing use, and digitalization are shaping the future of energy, requiring substantial investments, policy support, and technological advancements. The successful navigation of this transition demands proactive and coordinated efforts across industries and governments.

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